Reliability and validity of the Geriatric Depression Scale. The GDS is available in a long-form that consists of 30 questions, and a more commonly used short form that has 15 questions. Are you afraid that something bad is going to happen to you? The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a well-validated screening tool for depression in the elderly that comes in two common formats: the 30-item (long form) and 15-item (short-form) self-rating scale. It found that in addition to accurately identifying depression in people whose cognition was intact, the GDS could also accurately be used to screen for depression in people whose Mini-Mental State Exam (a questionnaire that is used to measure cognitive impairment) scores were at 15 or above.. There is also a five-item GDS that research has shown to be comparable to the 15-question form in terms of effectively identifying depression. Get our free guide when you sign up for our newsletter. YES / NO. Daniel B. It has been designed for the assessment of depressive symptomatology in elderly people and excludes any questions relating to the physical symptoms of depression … Purpose : The 4 item Geriatric Depression Scale is suitable as a screening test for depressive symptoms in the elderly. Yesavage JA, Brink TL, Rose TL, et al. Discover more about the GDS screening tool and also some guidelines about depression in the elderly below the form. Is There a Test That Determines If You Have Depression? Read our, Medically reviewed by Daniel B. BEST TOOL: While there are many instruments available to measure depression, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), first created by Yesavage, et al., has been tested and used extensively with the older population. Do you think that most people are better off than you are? Research has found that the GDS can be used in the early to middle stages of Alzheimer's with accuracy. The Geriatric Depression Scale. Please enable JavaScript in order to get the best experience when using this site. GDS validity was similar to the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D), but significantly better than the "Yale-1-question" scale Excellent correlations between classification criteria “no depression,” “mild depression,” and “severe depression” and the GDS (r = 0.82), SDS (r = 0.69), and HAMD (r = 0.83) Because the development of the scale was funded in part by the Federal government, the GDS is considered public domain and is free to use. YES / NO, 9. Choose the best answer for how you have felt over the past week: 1. Most Older Adults Won’t Seek Help For Depression, Survey Finds, Benefits and Limitations of the Children's Depression Inventory, The PHQ-9: Patient Healthcare Questionnaire for Depression, Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual People May Face Higher Dementia Risk Later in Life, Psilocybin Effective for Treating Major Depressive Disorder, Research Suggests. Instructions: Choose the best answer for how you felt over the past week. YES / NO, 5. Scores > 10 are almost always depression. Description of Measure: The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a self-report measure of depression in older adults. 2010;36(5):30-7. doi:10.3928/00989134-20100303-01, Jongenelis K, Pot AM, Eisses AM, et al. The GDS considers the differences between how symptoms present in younger and older adults. Geriatric depression is a mental and emotional disorder affecting older adults. A score of over five points indicates a need for follow-up evaluation, while a score over 10 almost always indicates depression. Question Answer The sensitivity and specificity, and the convergent and criterion validity of the two scales as well as the inter-rater relia … Do you feel happy most of the time? What Is the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale? The scale can be used on healthy patients as well medically ill and even adults who are mildly to moderately impaired cognitively. YES / NO, 10. So what does the Geriatric Depression Scale measure that sets it apart from depression screening instruments used in younger populations? Geriatric Depression Scale This scale was developed as a basic screening measure for depression in older adults. The GDS consists of questions that assess a person's level of enjoyment, interest, social interactionsand more. Do you feel that your situation is hopeless? Link to longer version: MOOD ASSESSMENT SCALE: Choose the best answer for how you have felt over the past week: 1. Content : 4 questions pertaining to depression . While somatic symptoms such as weight loss, pessimism about the future, and sleep disturbances are common depressive symptoms among younger people, such symptoms are often also related to the aging process itself among older adults. Developed in 1982 by J.A. Have you dropped many of your activities and interests? According to multiple research studies, both the long and the short form GDS are quite accurate at identifying depression in older people. Although differing sensitivities and specificities have been obtained across studies, for clinical purposes a score > 5 points is suggestive of depression and should warrent a follow-up interview. Later versions retain only the most discriminating questions; their validity approaches that of the original form. For example, in the above questions, one point would be given if the person answered "no" for the first question and "yes" for the second question. Geriatric Depression Scale Name: Date: Instructions: Please circle the best answer for how you felt over the past week. The items may be answered yes or no, which is thought to be simpler than scales that use a five-category response set. Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: a preliminary report. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a simple, 30-item, yes/no questionnaire that can be helpful in identifying possible depression among elderly people.Please answer “yes” or “no” to the following questions in regards to how you have been feeling recently. What is the Geriatric Depression Scale? Do you often get bored? YES / NO, 6. The long-form uses an 11-point cutoff and the short-form uses a 7-point cutoff. The GDS comprises 30 items; … Administered by : Health care provider or self administered . 2007;107(10):60-9. doi:10.1097/01.NAJ.0000292204.52313.f3, Overview of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Ⓒ 2020 About, Inc. (Dotdash) — All rights reserved, Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Users respond in a “Yes/No” format. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. Am J Nurs. It contains 30 forced-choice “yes” or “no” questions, a format that is helpful for individuals with cognitive dysfunction. 1£†Ä¾iÑÍÐÂïpuUÜ7w³ˆ¼¾žÎšÓöAPŽ KÆ(jµÂIÃXÛÿHzy¤8.E->b±Ï²¤Â‚ªú#?a±£¹ÑA/}AŽ. Do you feel you have more problems with memory than most? Author : Sheikh JI, 1986 Thank you, {{form.email}}, for signing up. An answer of "Yes" on questions 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, and 15 or a "No" response to questions 1, 5, 7, 11, and 13 are indicative of depressive symptoms in an older adult. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), although developed for older adults, has also been validated in younger adults. The GDS short form (15 questions) has been derived from the 30 question version. We will consider this page to be under continuous development and try to keep translations of the scale available. [ 7, 8 ] Screen for functional status and safety. There is also a five-item GDS that research has shown to be comparable to the 15-question form in terms of effectively identifying depression. Do you prefer to stay at home, rather than going out and doing new things? If you're using the five-item version, a score of two or more is indicative of depression. The GDS is available in a long-form that consists of 30 questions, and a more commonly used short form that has 15 questions. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a screening test originally developed by J.A. Answers in bold indicate depression. yes no 4. Are you in good spirits most of the time? What Are the Signs That You Are Severely Depressed? Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: a preliminary report. The scale was first developed in 1982 by J.A. yes no 2. The GDS form usually has the answer that could indicate depression underlined or bolded, to indicate the responses for which a point is given. Do you feel pretty worthless the way you are now? YES / NO, 12. These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Five-Item Geriatric Depression Scale." Reliability and validity of the Geriatric Depression Scale, Diagnostic accuracy of the original 30-item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale in nursing home patients, Usefulness of the Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item version among very old people with and without cognitive impairment, How to try this: the Geriatric Depression Scale: Short Form. Yesavage and colleagues in 1982 that is used to identify symptoms of depression in older adults. This geriatric depression scale (GDS) test evaluates symptoms of depression in elderly patients based on a 15 question and a 4 question version. Yesavage and others. Take the FAST Test Now and Find Out. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), a validated questionnaire for self-rated assessment, is available in a 30-item long-form and a 15-item short-form version. A tool clinicians have at their disposal is the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was designed specifically to screen for depression in geriatric populations. 2013;17(5):638-45. doi:10.1080/13607863.2012.758231, Greenberg SA. J Gerontol Nurs. Yesavage and colleagues, the Geriatric Depression Scale is an assessment tool used to help identify depression in the elderly. et al. Since this version proved both time-consuming and difficult for some patients to complete, a 15-item version was developed. The GDS was originally developed as a 30-item instrument. How to try this: the Geriatric Depression Scale: Short Form. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) Scoring Instructions Instructions: Score 1 point for each bolded answer. YES / NO, 7. While a depression diagnosis should not be given based on the result of the GDS alone, it is often included as part of a diagnostic assessment due to the scale's established reliability and validity.. What Is the Geriatric Depression Scale? YES / NO, 14. Aging Ment Health. Questions relate to how an individual has felt in a specified time frame. Are you basically satisfied with your life? As a result, the GDS has been translated into several different languages, several of which have been validated by research as being accurate in identifying depression. Are Alcohol Screening Tests the Best for Diagnosing Drinking Problems? Originally contained 100 items, but was condensed to 30 Is a self-administered test, but can be used in observer-administered formats also The Mini-Social Phobia Inventory Screens for Social Anxiety Disorder, The History and Use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, What You Need to Know About the DSM-5 Updates on Depression. Block, MD, is an award-winning, board-certified psychiatrist who operates a private practice in Pennsylvania. How the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale Measures Social Anxiety, Questionnaire for Alcohol Problems Is a Shortened AUDIT Test, Daily Tips for a Healthy Mind to Your Inbox, Can older adults with dementia accurately report depression using brief forms? It has since been shortened to an even more manageable catalog of 15 questions. Have you dropped many of your activities and interests? 2005;20(11):1067-74. doi:10.1002/gps.1398, Conradsson M, Rosendahl E, Littbrand H, Gustafson Y, Olofsson B, Lövheim H. Usefulness of the Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item version among very old people with and without cognitive impairment. Do you think it is wonderful to be alive now? Do you feel that your life is empty? Patient Health Questionnaire-2, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, five- or 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. The GDS consists of questions that assess a person's level of enjoyment, interest, social interactions and more. In fact, the GDS can even be self-administered. YES / NO, 3. Introduction: The 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30) and the shorter GDS-15, GDS-5 and GDS-4 are recommended as depression screening tools for elderly individuals. The International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry published research that studied the effectiveness of the GDS when it came to assessing depression levels in people with dementia. Admin time : 3 min User Friendly : High. yes no 3. It's typically used as part of a comprehensive geriatric assessment at a doctor's office, a nursing home, a hospital, or in other appropriate situations. It can be used with healthy adults, medically ill adults, and those with mild to moderate cognitive impairments. It was designed specifically for the aged, as a screening instrument for depression. Everything feels more challenging when you're dealing with depression. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a 30-item self-report assessment used to identify depression in the elderly. Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. The GDS is frequently used in acute, long-term, and community settings, often part of a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Block, MD, How Depression Is Measured in People With Dementia. A point is given for each answer that indicates depression. Are you basically satisfied with your life? Esther Heerema, MSW, shares practical tips gained from working with hundreds of people whose lives are touched by Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia. Diagnostic accuracy of the original 30-item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale in nursing home patients. HIGN is dedicated to the care of older adults and recognizes the vast impact of COVID-19 on this vulnerable population. Feelings of sadness and occasional "blue”" moods are normal. A score > 5 suggests depression A score ≥ 10 is almost always indicative of depression Yesavage J.A., Brink T.L., Rose T.L. Assessment tool for depression - 15-item self-report assessment used to identify depression in the elderly. The long form uses an 11-point cutoff score for diagnosing depression and the short form a 7-point cutoff score. In order to screen for symptoms of depression rather than factors associated with aging, the GDS focuses specifically on psychiatric rather than somatic symptoms. [ 14,15] The GDS is available free online in a variety of languages. Hartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing NYU Rory Meyers College of Nursing Expert insight on COVID-19 and Older Adults. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) Short Form is a screening tool that’s used in community, acute, and long-term care settings to evaluate whether an older adult is depressed. THE GERIATRIC DEPRESSION SCALE (GDS) 1. In addition to being free, the GDS requires very little training to administer. Are You a Hazardous Drinker? Geriatric Depression Scale (Short version) Geriatric Depression Scale -GDS (short version). The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a 30-item self-report assessment designed specifically to identify depression in the elderly. YES / NO, 15. For the short form above, a score of above five points suggests depression. A score of 5 or more suggests depression. The original Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was a 30-item questionnaire - time-consuming and challenging for some patients (and staff). YES / NO, 2. 1. The Geriatric Depression Scale was developed by Yesavage, Brink, Rose, Lum, Huang, Adey, and Leirer (1982). The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is specifically designed to screen and measure depression in older adults. The widely used Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) originated in the 1980s as a 30-item self-report assessment used to identify depression in the elderly. BEST TOOL: While there are many instruments available to measure depression, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), first created by Yesavage, et al., has been tested and used extensively with the older population. Therefore, it taps the affective and behavioral symptoms of depression and excludes most symptoms that may be confused with somatic disease (e.g., slowness, insomnia, hyposexuality) or dementia. The scale is a 30-item, self-report instrument that uses a "Yes/No" format. Geriatric Depression Scale (Short Form) Patient’s Name: Date: Instructions: Choose the best answer for how you felt over the past week.Note: when asking the patient to complete the form, provide the self-rated form (included on the following page). Best Tool: While there are many instruments available to measure depression, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), first created by Yesavage et … The study is a validation study of two psychogeriatric depression rating scales, The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD). It may be the first step toward recognizing, diagnosing, and treating elderly patients. J Psychiatr Res 1983; 17:37-49. The scale. YES / NO, 11. Do you feel that your life is empty? Lach HW, Chang YP, Edwards D. Can older adults with dementia accurately report depression using brief forms? This tip sheet provides guidance on administering the Geriatric Depression Scale, a depression assessment tool specifically designed for older people. On the full 30-question long-form, a score is considered normal if it's between 0–9; an indicator of mild depression is between 10–19, and a positive for severe depression is between 20–30. 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